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How to Detect Lies (From the book "How to Detect Lies Paul Ekman"). 

 
Detecting deception from the words, voice and body. 
 
"And how can you know that I have told a lie?" 
"My dear child, they soon discover the lies, because they are of two kinds: there are lies with short legs and lies with long noses Yours is one of those lies long nose.." Pinocchio, 1892. 

 
People lie supusiese less if there is a sign of lying insurance, but does not exist. There is no sign of deception itself, no move or gesture, facial expression or muscle torque in and of itself mean that the person is lying. There is only evidence that their preparation was to lie low and evidence that certain emotions do not correspond to the general course of what he says. These are the autodelaciones and deception clues. The lie catcher must learn to see what is recorded as an emotion in speech, body and the human face, which can leave traces despite attempts to hide her feelings liar, and what makes one false emotional impressions are formed. Discover deceit also requires understanding how these behaviors can reveal that the liar is putting together your strategy as you go. 

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Detecting lies is not simple. One problem is the accumulation of information; there are too many things to keep in mind at once, too many sources of information: words, pauses, sound of voice, expressions, head movements, gestures, postures, breathing, blushing or fading, sweat, etc.. All these sources can transmit information simultaneously or overlapping manner, and vying for the attention of the lie catcher. Fortunately, this does not need to scrutinize with equal care all you can see and hear. Not all sources of information in the course of a dialogue is reliable; autodelatan some much more than others. The funny thing is that most people pay more attention to the less reliable sources (words and facial expressions), and therefore is easily disoriented. 
 
Usually liars can not control or hide all your behavior; probably do not achieve even wanted. It is unlikely that someone could successfully control anything that might betray him, from the tip of the head to the toes. Instead, liars hide and distort what, according assume, attract more attention from others. They usually put great care in the choice of words. 
 
We all learn, to grow and reach adulthood, that most people listen carefully to what you tell them. If the words get so much attention, obviously because they are the richest form of communication and differentiated. Can be transmitted through them many more messages, and faster, than through the face, voice and body. Liars say everything subjected to censorship and carefully hidden messages that do not wish to convey, not only because they know that everyone pays more attention to this source of information, but also because they know they will be considered producers of their own words any more than his own voice, your facial expressions or body movements most. You can always deny that one has had some expression of anger or an angry tone in his voice. The defendant gets defensive and says, "You hear thought so, but there was no anger in my voice." Much more difficult is to deny that one has said an angry word is there, it is easy to remember and repeat, difficult to deny it altogether. 
 
Another reason that controlling both words and are so often preferred for concealment or misrepresentation is that it is simple to state falsehoods in words. It can be written in advance exactly what is meant, and even fix until as you want. Only a skilled actor could so accurately plan each of their facial expressions, gestures and voice inflections. Words can be tested again and again before saying. In addition, the speaker has about them a permanent feedback, he hears what he says and can thus fine tune your message. The feedback received by the channels of the face, the voice and the body is much less accurate. 


 
 
WORDS

Interestingly, many liars betray his words that are neglected. Not that I could not hide, or they tried but failed: it just happens to be despreocuparon inventing his story carefully. 
The director of a company management selection recounted the case of an individual who had submitted to his agency twice, with different name, in the course of a year. When asked which of the two names would be called, "... the subject which had first said his name was Leslie D'Ainter and then changed the name to Lester Dainter, continued with his lie without you move a hair. explained that he had changed his name because Leslie sounded female, * and last name, to make it easier to pronounce. 
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But what really gave him away were her references. He presented three letters of recommendation dazzling; however, all the employer had made ​​a spelling error in the same word. "
 
The most careful of deceivers can, however, be betrayed by what Sigmund Freud called a "slip of the tongue." In his book Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Freud showed that failed acts of daily life-such as slips of the tongue, forgetting names known, errors in reading or writing-were not accidental but were full events meaning, revealing internal psychological conflicts. A slip of this type expresses "what is not meant, becomes a means of betraying himself." Although Freud was not interested to study in particular the cases of deception in one of his examples shows how a slip betrays a lie. The example in question describes an experience of Dr. Brill, one of the earliest and best-known followers of Freud in America: 
 
"One evening, Dr. Frink and I went for a walk and try some of the issues New York Psychoanalytic Society. At the time we ran into a colleague, Dr. R., who I had gone years without seeing and whose private life he knew nothing. we were happy to meet again, and my suggestion we went to a cafe, where we spent two hours in animated conversation. seemed to know a lot about me, because after the customary greeting asked my little boy and I explained that . had mine time to time through a mutual friend news, and was interested in my work since he was aware of it by medical journals to my question about whether he had married, gave a negative answer, adding: 'for what was to marry a man like me? '
"After leaving the cafe, suddenly turned towards me. 'I'd said do know me you would do in the following case: I know a nurse who is entangled as an accomplice to adultery in a divorce the wife filed for divorce her husband calling the nurse as an accomplice, and he obtained a divorce 'Here I interrupted him.' you mean she got a divorce 'rectified on the spot.' of course, she got it ', and kept referring to the nurse was so affected by the process and the scandal that took to drink, he suffered a severe nervous, etc alteration,., and he asked me for advice on how they were to treat-as soon I had corrected the error asked him explain it, but he started with the usual responses of amazement. every human being has every right to make a slip, which is due to chance alone and nothing to look back, so I replied that any mistake in speech must have its foundation, and would be tempted to believe that he was the hero of the story, except that I had reported earlier that remained single. In this case, indeed, the slip is explained by the desire that he, not his wife had obtained a divorce in order to not have to pay food (according to our laws on marriage) and to marry back in the city of New York. The persistently disavowed my guess, the pair that corroborated, however, with an exaggerated emotional reaction, sharp signs of excitement, and then laughter. At my request to tell the truth for the sake of scientific clarity, I received this response: "If you want me to lie to him must believe that I am single, and therefore its psychoanalytic explanation is entirely false '. He added that a man who was repairing each insignificance was dangerous to all lights. Suddenly he remembered that he had another appointment and said goodbye. 
 
"Both Dr. Frink and I were nonetheless convinced that my resolution of the slip he had made was correct, and I decided to get your proof or refutation by inquiries into the case. Few days later I visited a neighbor, old friend Dr. R., who could confirm my explanation in its entirety. the verdict was delivered a few weeks ago, the nurse being convicted as an accomplice to adultery. Dr. R. is now firmly convinced of the correctness of the Freudian mechanisms "elsewhere Freud says that" suffocation of the purpose of saying something and this is the indispensable condition for a slip occurs in speech "(italics in original). Such "suffocation" or suppression could be deliberate if the speaker was lying, but Freud was interested in the cases in which the speaker did not realize it. Once the slip occurred, the subject can recognize what has stifled, or maybe not even then aware of it. 
 
The lie catcher should be cautious and not assume that any verbal slip is a manifestation of a lie. At current, the context in which the slip occurs can help you determine whether or not hiding a hoax. It must avoid the mistake of considering truthful someone just because you do not make any verbal slip. There are many lies that do not include them. Freud explained why certain reason lies betray by these slips but most do not. It is tempting assumption that the slip occurs when the liar wants to be caught when he feels guilty for lying. No doubt, Dr. R. Brill referred to in the quoted text must have felt guilt for cheating on his esteemed colleague. But to date no study has determined why only certain lies, and no other, betray with slips; not even been much speculation about it. 


 

VOICE
 
By "voice" everything that includes speech apart from the words themselves. The most common signs of a cheating vowels are too long or frequent pauses. The hesitation to start talking, especially when you must answer a question, can arouse suspicion, and other minor pauses during the speech if they are frequent. Other courts give them certain errors that do not form words, as some interjections ("Jah", "oooh!", "Err ..."), repetitions ("I, I, I really mean that. .. ") and partial words (" In actual fact I like it "). 

These errors and pauses that indicate deception may be due to two reasons linked. Perhaps the liar has not developed its plan in advance; if not supposed to have to lie, or if they meant but a particular question caught him by surprise, you may incur such vocal hesitations or mistakes. However, they can occur even when there is a well-crafted plan prior. 
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Great detection apprehension may complicate errors committed by itself liar who has not prepared well. A woman being listened warns how bad what he says sounds have more fear of being discovered, which will only intensify his vocal mistakes and exaggerate their breaks. 

These errors and pauses that indicate deception may be due to two reasons linked. Perhaps the liar has not developed its plan in advance; if not supposed to have to lie, or if they meant but a particular question caught him by surprise, you may incur such vocal hesitations or mistakes. However, they can occur even when there is a well-crafted plan prior. Great detection apprehension may complicate errors committed by itself liar who has not prepared well. A woman being listened warns how bad what he says sounds have more fear of being discovered, which will only intensify his vocal mistakes and exaggerate their breaks. 
 
Also the sound of the voice may to betray deception. In general we believe that the sound of the voice reveals emotion at that time who feels issued, but the scientists who have investigated this subject are not so sure. While many have found ways to distinguish the "nice" voices "unpleasant", still do not know if the sound is different for each of the major unpleasant emotions: anger, fear, grief, profound disgust, disdain. I think that over time these differences find out. For now I will just describe what is known and what looks promising. 

The vocal signs of emotion that is best documented is the tone of voice. At about the subjects studied, 70% tone rises when under the influence of an emotional disturbance. This is probably more true when the disturbance is a feeling of anger or fear, as some data, although not definitive, show that low tone with sadness or regret. And still have not been able to find out whether scientists or tone of voice changes not in moments of excitement, anxiety, disgust or disdain. Other signs of emotion, not as well established but promising, are the increased speed and volume of voice when you feel anger or fear, and the low speed and volume when you feel sad. It is expected that progress on medication other voice characteristics such as timbre, vocal energy spectrum in different frequency bands, and changes related to breathing rate. 
 
The voice changes produced by an emotion not easily concealable. If what you want is concealed an emotion felt at the very moment in which they lie, chances are that the liar autodelate. If the goal was to hide the anger or fear, your voice will sound sharper and stronger, and the pace of your speech will increase; an opposite pattern of voice changes may reveal feelings of sadness they want to hide. 
 
The sound of the voice may also betray lies that have been told not to hide an emotion that was at stake. The fear of being found to produce similar sounds of fear; guilt for cheating alter the voice in the same sense that sadness-but this is only a conjecture; not clear whether the duping delight can be identified and measured in his voice. My personal belief is that any kind of excitement or passion has its corresponding vowel marks, but this has not yet been established. 
Our experiment with nursing students was one of the first to document how to change the tone of voice with deception. 10 We note that the tone became more acute; we believe this was because the nurses had some fear. There were two reasons for this. We had determined that feel that in this experiment was much that was at stake for them, so they had great suspicion to be discovered. On the other hand, observing the horrible scenes of medical film generated fear, for empathy in some. It would not have this result if either of these sources would have been less intense fear. Suppose we had studied people whose career was not compromised by the test for them and was just another experiment; being so little at stake, perhaps they would not have sense enough to fear that this is noticing the tone of his voice. Or suppose that we had designed them a film about a dying child: it is likely to raise up in them sadness, but not afraid. It is true that his fear of being trapped could have also raised the tone of his voice. 


 

BODY
He knew one of the ways in which body movements reflect hidden feelings in an experiment conducted in my student days, over twenty years ago. There was then too scientific evidence that body movements accurately reflect the emotions or personality. Some psychotherapists thought so, but his examples and statements in this regard were rejected by behaviorists (who at that time dominated academic life) as unsubstantiated anecdotes. Between 1914 and 1954 he conducted many studies could be founded without the postulate that nonverbal behavior provides reliable information about emotions and personality. Academic psychology taught with some pride that, as scientific experiments had shown, was a myth the assumption of some laymen to be able to know the emotions or personality through the face or body of an individual. The few social scientists or therapists who continued writing on the subject of body movement were considered, such as those interested in the phenomena of extrasensory perception and graphology, naive, gullible or charlatans.  how to detect lies, know when someone lies, lies, body language, tone of voice lies, Techniques Course Lie Detection in the Recruitment Process, lie detection, lie detection, lie detection in an interview, test on lies, how to detect lies, lies detect gestures, paul Ekman, detecting, lie detection techniques, such as recognizing lies, lies and identify methods to discover lies, techniques lie, lie detection workshop, emotional intelligence, lie detection, detection Guadalajara lie, lie detection DF.
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I could not accept that this was so. By observing body movements Jos during group therapy sessions, increasingly convinced me that I could indicate which of these felt disturbed at any given moment, and why. With all the optimism of a new graduate I started to modify the view of academic psychology on nonverbal behavior. We devised an experiment to demonstrate that body movements change when the subject is under stress. The source of stress was my old professor, who agreed to be folded to a plan hatched by me to question my fellow graduate course on topics that all of us, I knew it, we felt vulnerable. 
 
While hidden camera recorded the behavior of each of these emerging psychologists, teacher began asking him what he planned to do when the study ended. Those who answered that they would engage in research, they reproached his desire to retreat to the lab and do not take responsibility for helping those with mental illness. Those who planned to provide that kind of help engaging in psychotherapy criticized them for their desire to make money exclusively, thus evading the responsibility to conduct the necessary to better cure the mentally ill research. Also asked everyone if they had ever been treated in psychotherapy patients. Those who said yes, they rebuked them for how they could ever hope to heal others when they themselves were sick; to the respondents than not, they railed telling them it was not possible to help others without first knowing yourself. It was a situation that no one could win. Worse, I had asked my teacher if the student interrupted initiated a complaint or want to complete the answer he had given before each of his pointed questions. 

My fellow students had volunteered to help in this experiment now plunged into misery. They knew it was an interview related to my research, and also that would feel some tension; but this made ​​things easier when they were already in the middle of the dance. Out of the experiment, the teacher was acting so unreasonable had enormous power over them. His grades were crucial for graduate school and the enthusiasm with which they spoke of their recommendations could be crucial to their future employment. Within minutes, my friends started to falter. Unable to leave the experiment or to defend himself, full of anger and frustration, they were reduced to silence, or at most a few moans could issue disjointed. I prayed the teacher that after five minutes of interview interrupt this torture, I explain to the student what was done and why, and what elogiase for enduring so well this time of stress. 
 
Meanwhile, I watched behind a one-way mirror and the camera continuously recorded their movements.I could not believe my eyes, and from the first interview! After the teacher will launch its third verbal attack, the student sitting in front of him had retreated fingers least more right hand and hand remained in that position for a full minute, in a clear sign of rabid disgust . * However, he showed his anger in any other way, and the teacher was behaving as if he did not see the gesture. When the interview ended, burst into the room and told him; I replied that they had invented me. The girl admitted that she had been angry, but denied that he had expressed in some way. The teacher agreed with her that it must be my imagination pure, since he would not have gone unnoticed a gesture of rejection so rude like that. We saw the movie ... and here was proof. That action failed, the protruding finger, did not express an unconscious feeling. The girl knew angry; what was unconscious was his expression of that feeling: I had no idea of ​​the position of the fingers of your hand. The feelings that deliberately hide had proposed filter. 

Fifteen years later I attended the same type of nonverbal filtration falllido another gesture, in the experiment in which nursing students tried to hide their reactions to the bloody scenes. This time what they missed was not a hand gesture, but a shrug. One after another, these students autodelataban his lie with a slight shrug every time the interviewer asked them, for example: "Would you like to continue to see that movie?" Or "She would project to a child?". 
 
The shrug and the middle finger elevation are two examples of actions that call emblems to distinguish them from all the other gestures that people use. The emblems have a precise meaning, known to all within a particular cultural group. In the U.S., everyone knows that advance the middle finger with the other fingers folded amounts to a rude way of saying to another, "Come, you spank you!" and shrug is to say "do not know" or "I can do nothing" or "Who cares?". For the most part, other gestures and gestures do not have a precise definition and also its meaning is undefined. They do not say much if they are not accompanied by words. The emblems, however, can be used instead of words, or when they can not be used. There are about sixty emblems currently in use in the U.S. (of course, the vocabularies of emblems differ for each country, and often within a country, for its different regions). Examples of other well-known emblems we quote the vertical reciprocating head for yes or horizontal reciprocating to say no; inclination, sometimes accompanied by a turn of the hand, to tell someone where you are close to or accompany; agitation of the hand up to say goodbye; the hand placed behind the ear to signify that is not heard; thumb raised with the walker makes hitchhiking on a highway; Cross the middle finger over the index a desire to pray, etc. are met. 


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